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Laboratory Report

Laboratory Report
SCIENTIFIC DRAWINGS, DIAGRAMS, FIGURES AND TABLES IN LABORATORY REPORTS
Marks will be deducted if the following guidelines are not followed.

All diagrams, drawings and graphs are termed “Figures”. They must contain the following information:

Figure Numbering: Figures should be numbered in the numerical order in which they occur in the body of the report. Do not use the number from the textbook or journal from which you may have sourced a Figure. The Figure number must precede the title. For example, Figure 1: Longitudinal Section of an Artery.
Figure Size:
The size of a figure is usually 1/3 to 1/2 of an A4 page.
Well-labelled Diagrams:
Labels must be printed and parallel to either top or bottom of the page.
When you draw a Graph as part of an answer to a question, you must identify the following parts:
title
quantity represented on the X axis
the units of the quantity of the X axis
the scale used on the X axis
quantity represented on the Y axis
the units of the quantity of the Y axis
the scale used on the Y axis.
When you use a Table to present data, it must contain the following information:
Table Numbering: Tables should be numbered in the numerical order in which they occur in the body of the report. Do not use the number from the textbook or journal from which you may have sourced a Table. The Table number must precede the title. For example, Table 1: Fingernail growth over a two-week period.
Table Size:
The size of a table will depend on how muich information is being presented, but the width should be the same as any text on the page, and should be clearly legible, using 10-point font or larger.

 

You will need to word-process the report using the format outlined below. The following six sections, with HEADINGS, must be included:

Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Reference List.
Write the report in the PAST TENSE. Keep your writing IMPERSONAL and OBJECTIVE. Impersonal means: do not use people’s names, or words such as I, we, us them, you, me they, him, she, he, and them. No emotion should come through in your writing.
The report should be formatted as follows:

A4 size paper, 3cm margins, 12-point font, at least 1.5 lines spaced, left justified
Do NOT start a new line for each new sentence, and leave an extra line between paragraphs
Harvard formatting for in-text citations and the reference list
The report should also include a cover page. If your report does not have a cover page, your assignment may not be returned to you. The previous webpage before you cam to this page provides a link to download an assignment coversheet. If you prefer to create your own cover sheet, please ensure that it contains your name, student number, postal address, the subject title and code, your lecturer’s name, and the details of the assignment.

READ THE FOLLOWING IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE MARKING SCHEME

Introduction:

The Introduction explains what is being investigated, why it is being investigated (the aim/s), what you predict will be found (the hypothesis), and a brief overview or statement of the limitations and scope.

The introduction should contain background information (one or two paragraphs), explaining what you were investigating. Discuss what is known about the topic, using textbooks and journals as references. The Introduction must contain references to published work in the field. Essentially, this is where you justify why you are doing the experiment.

The aims must always be stated clearly. The aim is the starting point of a scientific report. The hypothesis then states the problem to be solved. The hypothesis should predict what will happen, based on your interpretation of previous experimental results (from a literature search). The aim/s and hypothesis then become a thread that weaves its way through the report.

The scope of the experiment can be explained partly through your aim/s. You should state what you are and are not covering in the experiment, how this might limit your findings, and therefore to what situations you can apply your results.

Methods:

The Methods section is written so that a complete stranger could reproduce the experiments exactly as you did them. You need to list any equipment that was used, not forgetting the subject! You then succinctly describe the procedures you used, explaining exactly how the experiments were carried out, and emphasizing any new techniques, or modifications to methods from Laboratory manuals or previous research papers.

Numbered sentences or point form is one way of writing the method process. You may find this useful to clarify concisely what you did and in what order. If you are following someone else’s method, you must cite the book or journal. Be concise and to the point, but do not be so brief that you leave out important details.

Here you must also discuss any limitations of the methodology. These limitations may include technical issues about reagents, the selection of the method, the equipment, the number of subjects, or it could be about subjective answers given by an observer, or the researcher’s error. You should also discuss how these methodological limitations might have affected your results.

Results:

The results are a clear, concise statement of facts, figures and observations, which you never embellish. Include all of your original drawings, observations, descriptions, and raw data in this section. You must include any analysis (statistics or calculations), and you may state which results are important and which Figure or Table they are in, but you must not discuss what the results mean or suggest, or how they compare to other studies. That must be left to the Discussion section. Do not include textbook drawings or results. Only your own results are acceptable in the Results section.

Results will normally consist of graphs, tables or figures showing the data obtained. These must be accompanied by a written description of the important points, and your assessment of any differences. It is not sufficient to have graphs, tables and figures with no explanations. For example, when iodine is added to a substance, it turns black when starch is present. In your results, you would describe that you observed this colour change, and that you interpreted it to mean that starch was present.

In the Results section, you must not discuss how or why the experiment was performed, discuss whether your results were expected or unexpected, or draw any conclusions.

The next page in this folder will provide more details on how to present graphs, tables and figures.

Discussion:

The Discussion section is the major component of your report. Here, you analyse, interpret and discuss your results, and explain your findings from the experiment.

Refer back to the aim/s, and keep the discussion relevant to these. Do your results from the experiment agree or disagree with the expected results (hypothesis), based on what other researchers found? What are the similarities and differences? When you compare your results with previous data, make sure you reference the literature correctly, with in-text citations. This is where you can speculate about new theories and acknowledge limitations in the data. Other peoples ideas, theories and research from textbooks and journals must be acknowledged (referenced), otherwise it is plagiarism.
SBI172 Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Report

During the course of the semester, you will be introduced to the concept of nutrition, metabolism and energy balance. The saying ‘you are what you eat’ is somewhat true, though perhaps ‘you are what you eat and do’ is a more accurate reflection of the availability and utilisation of energy. Metabolism essentially refers to the chemical changes in our cells that produce energy needed for vital processes and activities.
In this laboratory report, you will be instructed to calculate your basal and active metabolic rates, and maintain a 2 week food diary of your routine consumption of food and drinks. In the second week of the food diary period, you will be asked to change your current exercise levels to assess what impact both diet and exercise have on your body. You will also be required to discuss some important dietary and physical activity considerations for a selected disease/disorder.
TASK
1. Maintain an accurate food diary for a 2 week period. You should include every single item of food and drink you consume over the 2 week period, and make sure you include the carbohydrate, protein, fat and alcohol contents of your food and fluid.
2. At the completion of week 1, calculate your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) using the following equations:
BMR for Men = 66 + (13.7*weight in Kg) + (5*height in cm) – (6.8*age in years) = ____ Calories/day
BMR for Women = 655 + (9.6*weight in Kg) + (1.8*height in cm) – (4.7*age in years) = ____ Calories/day
3. At the completion of week 1, calculate your Active Metabolic Rate (AMR) based on the following conversion chart which provides a conversion factor as a quantitative estimate of your current activity level.
Activity Level Description Conversion Factor
Sedentary Minimal daily activity (sitting, standing, etc) 1.2
Light Light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week 1.375
Moderate Moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week 1.55
Heavy Hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/week 1.725
Exceptional Training for professional athletic competition 1.9

AMR = BMR*Conversion Factor = ____ Calories/day
4. At the completion of week 1 of your food diary, calculate what percentage of calories come from:
• Alcohol
• Fat
• Protein
• Carbohydrate
* Use the conversion factors below
• Protein and carbohydrate = 4 Calories/gram
• Fat = 9 Calories/gram
• Alcohol = 7 Calories/gram

5. In the second week of the experiment, change your exercise habits so that your conversion factor when measuring your AMR is different from what it was in the first week. This can be an increase or reduction in your physical activity levels.
6. At the completion of week 2, using the equations above, calculate your AMR with the new conversion factor.
7. At the completion of week 2 of your food diary, calculate what percentage of calories come from:
• Alcohol
• Fat
• Protein

• Carbohydrate

Discuss the calculations and answers for tasks 1 to 7 in your laboratory report. Also discuss the following in your laboratory report:
• How does your caloric intake compare to the recommended daily allowances for adults for carbohydrate, fat, protein and alcohol intake?
• How does your caloric intake compare to your energy requirements?
• What effect did a change in physical activity levels have on your caloric intake?
• Discuss some important considerations for the dietary intake and physical activity for one of the following disease/disorders:
o Diabetes
o Hypercholesterolemia
o Obesity
o Metabolic Syndrome

 

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